Explain in detail about Hepatitis B, its Symptoms and Treatment
Hepatitis B is one the STDs that causes liver infection by Hepatitis B Virus, or HBV. This can be both acute and chronic, leading to serious conditions and there is no cure for the same. However, it can be highly prevented by a vaccination and by following safe sex methods such as using condoms and dental dams. According to World Health Organization (WHO), about 257 million people are currently living with Hepatitis B infection. In 2015, 887,000 deaths were reported globally due to the Hepatitis B disease. The disease is more prevalent in the WHO Western Pacific Regions (Australia, China, Mongolia, etc) and WHO African Regions, i.e., about 6% of the total population. Though, there are other types of Hepatitis like Hepatitis A and Hepatitis C, only Hepatitis B is most likely to spread through sexual intercourse.
The infection virus is likely to spread through any body fluids such as semen, vaginal fluids, urine and blood; for example, through unsafe sexual intercourse (vagina, oral and anal), by sharing toothbrushes and razor blades and also by sharing needles for injecting drugs & tattoos. Generally during the acute phase of the disease, there are no symptoms, except for some who show signs of jaundice, nausea and fatigue.
There is no specific treatment for Hepatitis B. But certain oral medications can help in suppressing the symptoms and the further incidence of liver cancer, thereby improving the survival of the diseased person. However, the vaccination for Hepatitis B is proved to be 95% effective in preventing the incidence of the disease. The first dose of the vaccine is given to the newborn baby within 24 hours of its birth and the next two doses are around 2 months and 18 months respectively. Additionally, adults who have not been administered with the vaccine can take them as per the medical advice.